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We developed products for multicolor flow-cytometric immunophenotyping of cells of the human immune system from peripheral blood. Design of the new products reflects the recently published report on the kinetics of immune responses in relation to clinical and virological features of a COVID-19 patient that required hospitalization (1) and other studies observing immunologic features or pathological findings in severe COVID-19 patiens (2, 3).
Monoclonal antibody conjugatd multicolor panels are designed to enable characterization of antibody secreting cells(using DryFlowEx ASC Screening Kit) and subpopulations of activated T cells, including circulating follicular helper cells (using DryFlowEx ACT T Screening Kit) in EDTA anticoagulated peripheral blood.
(1) Thevarajan, I., Nguyen, T.H.O., Koutsakos, M. et al. Breadth of concomitant immune responses prior to patient recovery: a case report of non-severe COVID-19. Nat Med (2020).
(2) Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med (2020).
(3) Guang Chen G, Zhao J, Ning Q, et al. Clinical and immunologic features in severe and moderate Coronavirus Disease 2019. J Clin Invest. (2020).
Coronaviruses invade host cells by attaching spike proteins to specific host cell receptors. SARS-CoV uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme II(ACE2) host cell receptor, while MERS-CoV uses CD26(DPP4) (2). Recent results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 can enter cells using the same receptor ACE2 as SARS-CoV (1, 2, 3). More studies are needed to confirm ACE 2 is the only way to infect the host for SARS-CoV-2. After SARS-CoV-2 enters the cell through ACE2, Cathepsin degrades Spike protein to release nucleic acid. Some studies have shown that using Cathepsin B/L inhibitors can block the process. The study also showed that SARS-CoV-2 could also be directly hydrolyzed by the transmembrane protein TMPRSS2, enter and release nucleic acids. Al was used to screen the inhibitors (Baricitinib, Sunitinib, Erlotinib, etc.) of host endocytic regulatory factor AAK1, the inhibitors can block the delivery of virus to cells and the intracellular assembly of virus particles by inhibiting AAK1.
FineTest® can provide a variety of tools for coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) research, including human anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgG, IgM), inflammatory cytokines, to help the scientific community understand the mechanisms of infection and develop effective treatments.
(1) Shi, Z.L., et al. Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with the recent pneumonia outbreak in humans and its potential bat origin. bioRxiv 2020.
(2) Xintian Xu et al. Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein of rick of human transmission. SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences.
(3) Letko, M.C., Munster, V. Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for lineage B beta-coronaviruses, including 2019-nCoV. bioRxiv 2020.
As researches around the world work to advance solutions to combat the COVID-19 virus, we remain committed to manufacturing the specialty reagents and laboratory products that are critical to many of these important programs. We are here to support your efforts, and invite you to contact us if we can be help in realizing current supply continuity plans, future business resumption efforts, or even to address routine product or technical questions.
Transfection Reagents; For the development and production of cutting-edge cell and gene therapies, biopharmaceuticals, and vaccines.
Reagents and Stains; Used by hospicals and healthcare facilities to analyze research and clinical samples.
Electrophoresis Products; Monomers, polymers and reagents used to separate macromolecules for analysis.
Cleaners and Disinfectants; Laboratory grade products for scientific laboratories and cleanrooms.
Transfection Reagent References
(1) The sequence of human ACE2 is suboptimal for binding the S pike protein of SARS coronavirus 2.
(2) Enhanced production of Chikungunya virus-like particles using a high-pH adapted Spodoptera frugiperda insect cell line.
(3) Receptor variation and susceptibility to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection.
(4) A Bat-derived putative cross-family recombinant coronavirus with a reovirus gene.
(5) Coronavirus disinfection in histopathology.
(6) Novel coronavirus-like particles targeting cells lining the respiratory tract.
Pro5® MHC Class I Pentamers: the most consistent, published commercial technology for detecting antigen-specific CD8+ T cells.
When you are trying to detect a rare population of antigen specific T cells you will understand the importance of habing a research tool that is sensitive, accurate and gives reproducible results. Pro5® MHC Class I Pentamers are designed for these objectives. They bind directly to T cell receptors of a particular specificity, determined by the Major Histocompatibility Complex(MHC) allele and peptide combination. Pro5® Pentamers can be used to detect and separate antigen-specific CD8+ T cell populations as rare as 0.02% of lymphocytes. They are also suitable for detailed epitope characterization and further immune monitoring.
Unlike MHC multimers from other sources, which can be of variable quality and stability, Pro5® Pentamers benefit from a superior design and are made to a professional standard. Each Pentamer is purified four times before being subjected to several stringent quality control steps. Using the Pentamer technology enables you to achieve accurate and reproducible results.
ProT2® MHC Class II Tetramers: track antigen-specific CD4+ T cells with the most comprehensive class II tetramer catalog range.
ProT2® MHC Class II Tetramers allow you to detect single antigen-specific CD4+ T cells accurately by flow cytometry. They can also be used to separate cells for culture, expansion and further study. ProT2® Tetramers enable you to study in depth CD4+ T cell immune responses in a wide range of disease areas including autoimmune disease, cancer, and infectious diseases.